PLURALS-એક વચન / બહુ વચન 

change the voice

viram cinho




nam yogi avayav

bhav vachak sangna

artical -a/an/the

english kem sikvu joiae















Gujarat Secondary Education Board
STD 10th English Grammar  Online Test
Author:- Sukhadev N Hingu
An English teacher, Sarvadar Primary school,
Ta-Ghogha, Dist- Bhavnagar Pin code-364120
Email: snhingu@gmail.com
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        English grammar  





English grammar

  (Redirected from English grammer)
English grammar is the body of rules that describe the structure of expressions in the English language. This includes the structure of words,phrasesclauses and sentences.
There are historical, social, and regional variations of English. Divergences from the grammar described here occur in some dialects of English. This article describes a generalized present-day Standard English, the form of speech found in types of public discourse including broadcasting,educationentertainmentgovernment, and news reporting, including both formal and informal speech. There are certain differences in grammar between the standard forms of British EnglishAmerican English and Australian English, although these are inconspicuous compared with thelexical and pronunciation differences.


There are eight word classes, or parts of speech, that are distinguished in English: nounsdeterminerspronounsverbsadjectivesadverbsprepositions, and conjunctions. (Determiners, traditionally classified along with adjectives, have not always been regarded as a separate part of speech.) Interjections are another word class, but these are not described here as they do not form part of the clause and sentence structure of the language.[1]
Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs form open classes – word classes that readily accept new members, such as the noun celebutante (a celebrity who frequents the fashion circles), similar relatively new words.[1] The others are regarded as closed classes. For example, it is rare for a new pronoun to be admitted to the language.
English words are not generally marked for word class. It is not usually possible to tell from the form of a word which class it belongs to except, to some extent, in the case of words with inflectional endings or derivational suffixes. On the other hand, some words belong to more than one word class. For example run can serve as either a verb or a noun (these are regarded as two different lexemes).[2] Lexemes may be inflected to express different grammatical categories. The lexeme run has the forms runsran, and running.[2] Words in one class can sometimes be derived from those in another. This has the potential to give rise to new words. The noun aerobics has recently given rise to the adjectiveaerobicized.[2]
Words combine to form phrases. A phrase typically serves the same function as a word from some particular word class.[2] For example, my very good friend Peter is a phrase that can be used in a sentence as if it were a noun, and is therefore called a noun phrase. Similarly, adjective phrases and adverb phrases function as if they were adjectives or adverbs, but with other types of phrases the terminology has different implications. For example, a verb phrase consists of a verb together with any objects and other dependents; a prepositional phrase consists of a preposition together with its complement (and is therefore usually a type of adverb phrase); and a determiner phrase is a type of noun phrase containing a determiner.


Nouns form the largest English word class. There are many common suffixes used to form nouns from other nouns or from other types of words, such as -age (as in shrinkage), -hood (as in sisterhood), and so on,[2] although many nouns are base forms not containing any such suffix (such as catgrassFrance). Nouns are also often created byconversion of verbs or adjectives, as with the words talk and reading (a boring talkthe assigned reading).
Unlike in many related languages, English nouns do not have grammatical gender (although many nouns refer specifically to male or female persons or animals, like mother,fatherbulltigress; see Gender in English). Nouns are sometimes classified semantically (by their meanings) as proper nouns and common nouns (CyrusChina vs. frogmilk) or as concrete nouns and abstract nouns (booklaptop vs. heatprejudice).[3] A grammatical distinction is often made between count (countable) nouns such as clock and city, andnon-count (uncountable) nouns such as milk and decor.[4] Some nouns can function to be either countable or uncountable such the word "wine" (This is a good wineI prefer red wine).
Countable nouns generally have singular and plural forms.[3] In most cases the plural is formed from the singular by adding -[e]s (as in dogsbushes), although there are alsoirregular forms (woman/womenfoot/feet, etc.), including cases where the two forms are identical (sheepseries). For more details, see English plural.
Certain nouns can take plural verbs even though they are singular in form, as in The government were ... (where the government is considered to refer to the people constituting the government). This, a form of synesis, is more common in British than American English. See English plural: Singulars with collective meaning treated as plural.
English nouns are not marked for case as they are in some languages, but they have possessive forms, formed by the addition of -'s (as in John'schildren's), or just anapostrophe (with no change in pronunciation) in the case of -[e]s plurals and sometimes other words ending with -s (the dogs' ownersJesus' love). More generally, the ending can be applied to noun phrases (as in the man you saw yesterday's sister); see below. The possessive form can be used either as a determiner (John's cat) or as a noun phrase (John's is the one next to Jane's). For details, see English possessive.

Noun phrases

Noun phrases are phrases that function grammatically as nouns within sentences, for example as the subject or object of a verb. Most noun phrases have a noun as their head.[4]
An English noun phrase typically takes the following form (not all elements need be present):
In this structure:
  • the determiner may be an article (thea[n]) or other equivalent word, as described in the following section. In many contexts it is required for a noun phrase to include some determiner.
  • pre-modifiers include adjectives and some adjective phrases (such as redreally lovely), and noun adjuncts (such as college in the phrase the college student). Adjectival modifiers usually come before noun adjuncts.
  • complement or postmodifier[4] may be a prepositional phrase (... of London), a relative clause (like  ...which we saw yesterday), certain adjective or participial phrases (... sitting on the beach), or a dependent clause or infinitive phrase appropriate to the noun (like ... that the world is round after a noun such as fact or statement, or ... to travel widely after a noun such as desire).
An example of a noun phrase that includes all of the above-mentioned elements is that rather attractive young college student to whom you were talking. Here that is the determiner, rather attractive and young are adjectival pre-modifiers, college is a noun adjunct, student is the noun serving as the head of the phrase, and to whom you were talking is a post-modifier (a relative clause in this case). Notice the order of the pre-modifiers; the determiner that must come first and the noun adjunct college must come after the adjectival modifiers.
Coordinating conjunctions such as andor, and but can be used at various levels in noun phrases, as in John, Paul, and Marythe matching green coat and hata dangerous but exciting ridea person sitting down or standing up. See Conjunctions below for more explanation.
Noun phrases can also be placed in apposition (where two consecutive phrases refer to the same thing), as in that president, Abraham Lincoln, ... (where that president andAbraham Lincoln are in apposition). In some contexts the same can be expressed by a prepositional phrase, as in the twin curses of famine and pestilence (meaning "the twin curses" that are "famine and pestilence").
Particular forms of noun phrases include:
  • phrases formed by the determiner the with an adjective, as in the homelessthe English (these are plural phrases referring to homeless people or English people in general);
  • phrases with a pronoun rather than a noun as the head (see below);
  • phrases consisting just of a possessive;
  • infinitive and gerund phrases, in certain positions;
  • certain clauses, such as that clauses and relative clauses like what he said, in certain positions.


English determiners constitute a relatively small class of words. They include the articles thea[n] (and in some contexts some), certain demonstrative and interrogative words such as thisthat, and whichpossessives such as my and whose (the role of determiner can also be played by noun possessive forms such as John's and the girl's), variousquantifying words like allmanyvarious, and numerals (onetwo, etc.). There are also many phrases (such as a couple of) that can play the role of determiners.
Determiners are used in the formation of noun phrases (see above). Many words that serve as determiners can also be used as pronouns (thisthatmany, etc.)
Determiners can be used in certain combinations, such as all the water and the many problems.
In many contexts, it is required for a noun phrase to be completed with an article or some other determiner. It is not grammatical to say just cat sat on table; one must say my cat sat on the table. The most common situations in which a complete noun phrase can be formed without a determiner are when it refers generally to a whole class or concept (as indogs are dangerous and beauty is subjective) and when it is a name (JaneSpain, etc.) This is discussed in more detail at English articles and Zero article in English.


Pronouns are a relatively small, closed class of words that function in the place of nouns or noun phrases. They include personal pronounsdemonstrative pronounsrelative pronounsinterrogative pronouns, and some others, mainly indefinite pronouns.

Personal pronouns

The personal pronouns of modern standard English, and the corresponding possessive forms, are as follows:
NominativeObliqueReflexivePossessive determinerPossessive pronoun
1st pers. sing.Imemyselfmymine
2nd pers. sing./pl.you/y'allyou/y'allyourself/yourselvesyouryours
3rd pers. sing.shehetheyitherhimtheyit herselfhimselfthemselfitself herhistheiritshershistheirs, (rare: its)
1st pers. pl.weusourselvesourours
3rd pers. pl.theythemthemselvestheirtheirs
The second-person forms such as you are used with both singular and plural reference. In the Southern United States, y'all (you all) is used as a plural form, and various other phrases such as you guys are used in other places. An archaic set of pronouns used for singular reference is thou, thee, thyself, thy, thine, which are still used in religious services and can be seen in older works, such as Shakespeare's - in such texts, the word you is used as a plural form. You can also be used as an indefinite pronoun, referring to a person in general (see generic you) compared to the more formal alternative, one (reflexive oneself, possessive one's).
The third-person singular forms are differentiated according to the sex of the referent. For example, she can be used to refer to a female person, sometimes a female animal, and sometimes an object to which female characteristics are attributed, such as a ship or a country. A male person, and sometimes a male animal, is referred to using he. In other cases it can be used. (See Gender in English.) The word it can also be used as a dummy subject, in sentences like It is going to be sunny this afternoon.
The third-person plural forms such as they are sometimes used with singular reference, as a gender-neutral pronoun, as in each employee should ensure they tidy their desk. Despite its long history, this usage is sometimes considered ungrammatical. (See singular they.)
The possessive determiners such as my are used as determiners together with nouns, as in my old mansome of his friends. The second possessive forms like mine are used when they do not qualify a noun: as pronouns, as in mine is bigger than yours, and as predicates, as in this one is mine. Note also the construction a friend of mine (meaning "someone who is my friend"). See English possessive for more details.

Demonstrative and interrogative pronouns

The demonstrative pronouns of English are this (plural these), and that (plural those), as in these are good, I like that. Note that all four words can also be used as determiners (followed by a noun), as in those cars. They can also then form the alternative pronominal expressions this/that onethese/those ones.
The interrogative pronouns are whowhat, and which (all of them can take the suffix -ever for emphasis). The pronoun who refers to a person or people; it has an oblique formwhom (though in informal contexts this is usually replaced by who), and a possessive form (pronoun or determiner) whose. The pronoun what refers to things or abstracts. The word which is used to ask about alternatives from what is seen as a closed set: which (of the books) do you like best? (It can also be an interrogative determiner: which book?; this can form the alternative pronominal expressions which one and which ones.) Whichwho, and what can be either singular or plural, although who and what often take a singular verb regardless of any supposed number. For more information see who.
All the interrogative pronouns can also be used as relative pronouns; see below for more details.

Relative pronouns

The main relative pronouns in English are who (with its derived forms whom and whose), which, and that.[5]
The relative pronoun which refers to things rather than persons, as in the shirt, which used to be red, is faded. For persons, who is used (the man who saw me was tall). Theoblique case form of who is whom, as in the man whom I saw was tall, although in informal registers who is commonly used in place of whom.
The possessive form of who is whose (the man whose car is missing ...); however the use of whose is not restricted to persons (one can say an idea whose time has come).
The word that as a relative pronoun is normally found only in restrictive relative clauses (unlike which and who, which can be used in both restrictive and unrestrictive clauses). It can refer to either persons or things, and cannot follow a preposition. For example, one can say the song that [or whichI listened to yesterday, but the song to which [not to thatI listened yesterday. The relative pronoun that is usually pronounced with a reduced vowel (schwa), and hence differently from the demonstrative that (see Weak and strong forms in English). If that is not the subject of the relative clause, it can be omitted (the song I listened to yesterday).
The word what can be used to form a free relative clause – one that has no antecedent and that serves as a complete noun phrase in itself, as in I like what he likes. The wordswhatever and whichever can be used similarly, in the role of either pronouns (whatever he likes) or determiners (whatever book he likes). When referring to persons, who(ever)(and whom(ever)) can be used in a similar way (but not as determiners).

There as pronoun

The word there is used as a pronoun in some sentences, playing the role of a dummy subject, normally of an intransitive verb. The "logical subject" of the verb then appears as acomplement after the verb.
This use of there occurs most commonly with forms of the verb be in existential clauses, to refer to the presence or existence of something. For example: There is a heavenThere are two cups on the tableThere have been a lot of problems lately. It can also be used with other verbs: There exist two major variantsThere occurred a very strange incident.
The dummy subject takes the number (singular or plural) of the logical subject (complement), hence it takes a plural verb if the complement is plural. In colloquial English, however, the contraction there's is often used where there are would be expected.
The dummy subject can undergo inversionIs there a test today? and Never has there been a man such as this. It can also appear without a corresponding logical subject, in short sentences and question tagsThere wasn't a discussion, was there? There was.
The word there in such sentences has sometimes been analyzed as an adverb, or as a dummy predicate, rather than as a pronoun.[6] However, its identification as a pronoun is most consistent with its behavior in inverted sentences and question tags as described above.
Because the word there can also be a deictic adverb (meaning "at/to that place"), a sentence like There is a river could have either of two meanings: "a river exists" (with there as a pronoun), and "a river is in that place" (with there as an adverb). In speech, the adverbial there would be given stress, while the pronoun would not – in fact the pronoun is often pronounced as a weak form/ðə(r)/.

Other pronouns

Other pronouns in English are often identical in form to determiners (especially quantifiers), such as manya little, etc. Sometimes the pronoun form is different, as with none(corresponding to the determiner no), nothingeveryonesomebody, etc. Many examples are listed at Indefinite pronoun. Another indefinite (or impersonal) pronoun is one (with its reflexive form oneself and possessive one's), which is a more formal alternative to generic you.


Verbs form the second largest word class after nouns. The basic form of an English verb is not generally marked by any ending, although there are certain suffixes that are frequently used to form verbs, such as -ate (formulate), -fy (electrify), and -ise/ize (realise/realize).[7] Many verbs also contain prefixes, such un- (unmask), out- (outlast), over-(overtake), and under- (undervalue).[7] Verbs can also be formed from nouns and adjectives by conversion, as with the verbs snarenosedry, and calm.
Most verbs have three or four inflected forms: a third-person singular present tense form in -(e)s (writesbotches), a present participle and gerund form in -ing (writing), a past tense (wrote), and – though often identical to the past tense form – a past participle (written). Regular verbs have identical past tense and past participle forms in -ed, but there are 100 or so irregular English verbs with different forms (see list). The verbs havedo and say also have irregular third-person present tense forms (hasdoes /dʌz/says /sɛz/). The verb be has the largest number of irregular forms (am, is, are in the present tense, was, were in the past tense, been for the past participle).
Most of what are often referred to as verb tenses (or sometimes aspects) in English are formed using auxiliary verbs. Apart from what are called the simple present (writewrites) and simple past (wrote), there are also continuous (progressive) forms (am/is/are/was/were writing), perfect forms (have/has/had written, and the perfect continuous have/has/had been writing), future forms (will writewill be writingwill have writtenwill have been writing), and conditionals (also called "future in the past") with would in place of will. The auxiliaries shall and should sometimes replace will and would in the first person. For the uses of these various verb forms, see English verbs and English clause syntax.
The infinitive is the basic form of the verb (be, write, play), although there is also a "to-infinitive" (to beto writeto play) used in many syntactical constructions. There are also infinitives corresponding to other aspects: (to) have written(to) be writing(to) have been writing. The second-person imperative is identical to the (basic) infinitive; other imperative forms may be made with let (let us go, or let's golet them eat cake).
A form identical to the infinitive can be used as a present subjunctive in certain contexts: It is important that he follow them or ... that he be committed to the cause. There is also a past subjunctive (distinct from the simple past only in the possible use of were instead of was), used in some conditional sentences and similar: if I were (or wasrich ...were he to arrive now ...I wish she were (or washere. For details see English subjunctive.
The passive voice is formed using the verb be (in the appropriate tense or form) with the past participle of the verb in question: cars are driven, he was killed, I am being tickled, it is nice to be pampered, etc. The performer of the action may be introduced in a prepositional phrase with by (as in they were killed by the invaders).
The English modal verbs consist of the core modals cancouldmaymightmustshallshouldwillwould, as well as ought (to), had better, and in some uses dare and need.[8]These do not inflect for person or number,[8] and do not have infinitive or participle forms (except synonyms, as with be/being/been able (to) for the modals can/could). The modals are used with the basic infinitive form of a verb (I can swim, he may be killedwe dare not moveneed they go?), except for ought, which takes to (you ought to go).
The copula be, along with the modal verbs and the other auxiliaries, form a distinct class, sometimes called "special verbs" or simply "auxiliaries".[9] These have different syntax from ordinary lexical verbs, especially in that they make their interrogative forms by plain inversion with the subject, and their negative forms by adding not after the verb (could I ...? I could not ...). Apart from those already mentioned, this class may also include used to (although the forms did he use to? and he didn't use to are also found), and sometimes have even when not an auxiliary (forms like have you a sister? and he hadn't a clue are possible, though becoming less common). It also includes the auxiliary do (does,did); this is used with the basic infinitive of other verbs (those not belonging to the "special verbs" class) to make their question and negation forms, as well as emphatic forms (do I like you?he doesn't speak Englishwe did close the fridge). For more details of this, see do-support.
Some forms of the copula and auxiliaries often appear as contractions, as in I'm for I amyou'd for you would or you had, and John's for John is. Their negated forms with followingnot are also often contracted (see Negation below). For detail see English auxiliaries and contractions.

Verb phrases

A verb together with its dependents, excluding its subject, may be identified as a verb phrase (although this concept is not acknowledged in all theories of grammar[10]). A verb phrase headed by a finite verb may also be called a predicate. The dependents may be objects, complements, and modifiers (adverbs or adverbial phrases). In English, objects and complements nearly always come after the verb; a direct object precedes other complements such as prepositional phrases, but if there is an indirect object as well, expressed without a preposition, then that precedes the direct object: give me the book, but give the book to me. Adverbial modifiers generally follow objects, although other positions are possible (see under Adverbs below). Certain verb–modifier combinations, particularly when they have independent meaning (such as take on and get up), are known as "phrasal verbs".
For details of possible patterns, see English clause syntax. See the Non-finite clauses section of that article for verb phrases headed by non-finite verb forms, such as infinitives and participles.


English adjectives, as with other word classes, cannot in general be identified as such by their form,[11] although many of them are formed from nouns or other words by the addition of a suffix, such as -al (habitual), -ful (blissful), -ic (atomic), -ish (impishyoungish), -ous (hazardous), etc.; or from other adjectives using a prefix: disloyalirredeemable,unforeseenovertired.
Adjectives may be used attributively, as part of a noun phrase (nearly always preceding the noun they modify), as in the big house, or predicatively, as in the house is big. Certain adjectives are restricted to one or other use; for example, drunken is attributive (a drunken sailor), while drunk is usually predicative (the sailor was drunk).


Many adjectives have comparative and superlative forms in -er and -est,[12] such as faster and fastest (from the positive form fast). Spelling rules which maintain pronunciation apply to suffixing adjectives just as they do for similar treatment of regular past tense formation; these cover consonant doubling (as in bigger and biggest, from big) and the change of y to i after consonants (as in happier and happiest, from happy).
The adjectives good and bad have the irregular forms better, best and worse, worst; also far becomes farther, farthest or further, furthest. The adjective old (for which the regularolder and oldest are usual) also has the irregular forms elder and eldest, these generally being restricted to use in comparing siblings and in certain independent uses. For the comparison of adverbs, see Adverbs below.
Many adjectives, however, particularly those that are longer and less common, do not have inflected comparative and superlative forms. Instead, they can be qualified with moreand most, as in beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful (this construction is also sometimes used even for adjectives for which inflected forms do exist).
Certain adjectives are classed as ungradable.[12] These represent properties that cannot be compared on a scale; they simply apply or do not, as with pregnantdeadunique. Consequently, comparative and superlative forms of such adjectives are not normally used, except in a figurative, humorous or imprecise context. Similarly, such adjectives are not normally qualified with modifiers of degree such as very and fairly, although with some of them it is idiomatic to use adverbs such as completely. Another type of adjectives sometimes considered ungradable is those that represent an extreme degree of some property, such as delicious and terrified.

Adjective phrases

An adjective phrase is a group of words that plays the role of an adjective in a sentence. It usually has a single adjective as its head, to which modifiers and complements may be added.[13]
Adjectives can be modified by a preceding adverb or adverb phrase, as in very warmtruly imposingmore than a little excited. Some can also be preceded by a noun or quantitative phrase, as in fat-freetwo-metre-long.
Complements following the adjective may include:
  • prepositional phrasesproud of himangry at the screenkeen on breeding toads;
  • infinitive phrases: anxious to solve the problemeasy to pick up;
  • content clauses, i.e. that clauses and certain others: certain that he was rightunsure where they are;
  • after comparatives, phrases or clauses with thanbetter than yousmaller than I had imagined.
An adjective phrase may include both modifiers before the adjective and a complement after it, as in very difficult to put away.
Adjective phrases containing complements after the adjective cannot normally be used as attributive adjectives before a noun. Sometimes they are used attributively after the noun, as in a woman proud of being a midwife (where they may be converted into relative clauses: a woman who is proud of being a midwife), but it is wrong to say *a proud of being a midwife woman. Exceptions include very brief and often established phrases such as easy-to-use. (Certain complements can be moved to after the noun, leaving the adjective before the noun, as in a better man than youa hard nut to crack.)
Certain attributive adjective phrases are formed from other parts of speech, without any adjective as their head, as in a two-bedroom housea no-jeans policy.


Adverbs perform a wide range of functions. They typically modify verbs (or verb phrases), adjectives (or adjectival phrases), or other adverbs (or adverbial phrases).[14] However, adverbs also sometimes qualify noun phrases (only the bossquite a lovely place); pronouns and determiners (almost all); prepositional phrases (halfway through the movie); or whole sentences, to provide contextual comment or indicate an attitude (Frankly, I don't believe you).[15] They can also indicate a relationship between clauses or sentences (He died, and consequently I inherited the estate).[15]
Many English adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding the ending -ly, as in hopefullywidelytheoretically (for details of spelling and etymology, see -ly). Certain words can be used as both adjectives and adverbs, such as faststraight, and hard. The adverb corresponding to the adjective good is well (note that bad forms the regular badly, althoughill is occasionally used in some phrases).
There are also many adverbs that are not derived from adjectives,[14] including adverbs of time, of frequency, of place, of degree and with other meanings. Some suffixes that are commonly used to form adverbs from nouns are -ward[s] (as in homeward[s]) and -wise (as in lengthwise).
Most adverbs form comparatives and superlatives by modification with more and mostoftenmore oftenmost oftensmoothlymore smoothlymost smoothly (see alsocomparison of adjectives, above). However, a few adverbs retain irregular inflection for comparative and superlative forms:[14] muchmoremosta littlelessleastwellbetter,bestbadlyworseworstfarfurther (farther), furthest (farthest); or follow the regular adjectival inflection: fastfasterfastestsoonsoonersoonest; etc.
Adverbs indicating the manner of an action are generally placed after the verb and its objects (We considered the proposal carefully), although other positions are often possible (We carefully considered the proposal). Many adverbs of frequency, degree, certainty, etc. (such as oftenalwaysalmostprobably, and various others such as just) tend to be placed before the verb (they usually have chips), although if there is an auxiliary or other "special verb" (see Verbs above), then the normal position for such adverbs is after that special verb (or after the first of them, if there is more than one): I have just finished the crosswordShe can usually manage a pintWe are never lateYou might possibly have been unconscious. Adverbs that provide a connection with previous information (such as nextthenhowever), and those that provide the context (such as time or place) for a sentence, are typically placed at the start of the sentence: Yesterday we went on a shopping expedition.[16]
A special type of adverb is the adverbial particle used to form phrasal verbs (such as up in pick upon in get on, etc.) If such a verb also has an object, then the particle may precede or follow the object, although it will normally follow the object if the object is a pronoun (pick the pen up or pick up the pen, but pick it up).

Adverb phrases

An adverb phrase is a phrase that acts as an adverb within a sentence.[17] An adverb phrase may have an adverb as its head, together with any modifiers (other adverbs or adverb phrases) and complements, analogously to the adjective phrases described above. For example: very sleepilyall too suddenlyoddly enoughperhaps shockingly for us.
Another very common type of adverb phrase is the prepositional phrase, which consists of a preposition and its object: in the poolafter two yearsfor the sake of harmony.


Prepositions form a closed word class,[15] although there are also certain phrases that serve as prepositions, such as in front of. A single preposition may have a variety of meanings, often including temporal, spatial and abstract. Many words that are prepositions can also serve as adverbs. Examples of common English prepositions (including phrasal instances) are ofinonoverundertofromwithin front ofbehindoppositebybeforeafterduringthroughin spite of or despitebetweenamong, etc.
A preposition is usually used with a noun phrase as its complement. A preposition together with its complement is called a prepositional phrase.[18] Examples are in Englandunder the tableafter six pleasant weeksbetween the land and the sea. A prepositional phrase can be used as a complement or post-modifier of a noun in a noun phrase, as in the man in the carthe start of the fight; as a complement of a verb or adjective, as in deal with the problemproud of oneself; or generally as an adverb phrase (see above).
English allows the use of "stranded" prepositions. This can occur in interrogative and relative clauses, where the interrogative or relative pronoun that is the preposition's complement is moved to the start (fronted), leaving the preposition in place. This kind of structure is avoided in some kinds of formal English. For example:
  • What are you talking about? (Possible alternative version: About what are you talking?)
  • The song that you were listening to ... (more formal: The song to which you were listening ...)
Notice that in the second example the relative pronoun that could be omitted.
Stranded prepositions can also arise in passive voice constructions and other uses of passive past participial phrases, where the complement in a prepositional phrase can become zero in the same way that a verb's direct object would: it was looked atI will be operated onget your teeth seen to. The same can happen in certain uses of infinitivephrases: he is nice to talk tothis is the page to make copies of.


Conjunctions express a variety of logical relations between items, phrases, clauses and sentences.[19] The principal coordinating conjunctions in English are andor, and but, as well as norsoyet and for. These can be used in many grammatical contexts to link two or more items of equal grammatical status,[19] for example:
  • Noun phrases combined into a longer noun phrase, such as John, Eric, and Jillthe red coat or the blue one. When and is used, the resulting noun phrase is plural. A determiner does not need to be repeated with the individual elements: the cat, the dog, and the mouse and the cat, dog, and mouse are both correct. The same applies to other modifiers. (The word but can be used here in the sense of "except": nobody but you.)
  • Adjective or adverb phrases combined into a longer adjective or adverb phrase: tired but happyover the fields and far away.
  • Verbs or verb phrases combined as in he washed, peeled, and diced the turnips (verbs conjoined, object shared); he washed the turnips, peeled them, and diced them (full verb phrases, including objects, conjoined).
  • Other equivalent items linked, such as prefixes linked in pre- and post-test counselling,[20] numerals as in two or three buildings, etc.
  • Clauses or sentences linked, as in We came but they wouldn't let us in. They wouldn't let us in, nor would they explain what we had done wrong.
There are also correlative conjunctions, where as well as the basic conjunction, an additional element appears before the first of the items being linked.[19] The common correlatives in English are:
  • either ... or (either a man or a woman);
  • neither ... nor (neither clever nor funny);
  • both ... and (they both punished and rewarded them);
  • not ... but, particularly in not only ... but also (not exhausted but exhilaratednot only football but also many other sports).
Subordinating conjunctions make relations between clauses, making the clause in which they appear into a subordinate clause.[21] Some common subordinating conjunctions in English are:
  • conjunctions of time, including afterbeforesinceuntilwhenwhile;
  • conjunctions of cause and effect, including becausesincenow thatasin order thatso;
  • conjunctions of opposition or concession, such as althoughthougheven thoughwhereaswhile;
  • conjunctions of condition: such as ifunlessonly ifwhether or noteven ifin case (that);
  • the conjunction that, which produces content clauses, as well as words that produce interrogative content clauses: whetherwherewhenhow, etc.
A subordinating conjunction generally comes at the very start of its clause, although many of them can be preceded by qualifying adverbs, as in probably because ...especially if .... The conjunction that can be omitted after certain verbs, as in she told us (that) she was ready. (For the use of that in relative clauses, see Relative pronouns above.)


As noted above under Verbs, a finite indicative verb (or its clause) is negated by placing the word not after an auxiliary, modal or other "special" verb such as docan or be. For example, the clause I go is negated with the appearance of the auxiliary do, as I do not go (see do-support). When the affirmative already uses auxiliary verbs (I am going), no other auxiliary verbs are added to negate the clause (I am not going). (Until the period of early Modern English, negation was effected without additional auxiliary verbs: I go not.)
Most combinations of auxiliary verbs etc. with not have contracted formsdon'tcan'tisn't, etc. (Also the uncontracted negated form of can is written as a single word cannot.) On inversion of subject and verb (such as in questions; see below), the subject may be placed after a contracted negated form: Should he not pay? or Shouldn't he pay?
Other elements, such as noun phrases, adjectives, adverbs, infinitive and participial phrases, etc., can be negated by placing the word not before them: not the right answernot interestingnot to enternot noticing the train, etc.
When other negating words such as nevernobody, etc. appear in a sentence, the negating not is omitted (unlike its equivalents in many languages): I saw nothing or I didn't see anything, but not (except in non-standard speech) *I didn't see nothing (see Double negative). Such negating words generally have corresponding negative polarity items (ever forneveranybody for nobody, etc.) which can appear in a negative context, but are not negative themselves (and can thus be used after a negation without giving rise to double negatives).


A typical sentence contains one independent clause and possibly one or more dependent clauses, although it is also possible to link together sentences of this form into longer sentences, using coordinating conjunctions (see above).
A clause typically contains a subject (a noun phrase) and a predicate (a verb phrase in the terminology used above; that is, a verb together with its objects and complements). A dependent clause also normally contains a subordinating conjunction (or in the case of relative clauses, a relative pronoun or phrase containing one). English syntax is essentially of SVO (subject–verb–object) type; the verb precedes its object in the verb phrase, and the subject of the clause precedes the verb.


Like many other Western European languages, English historically allowed questions to be formed by inverting the positions of verb and subject. Modern English permits this only in the case of a small class of verbs ("special verbs"), consisting of auxiliaries as well as forms of the copula be (see subject–auxiliary inversion). To form a question from a sentence which does not have such an auxiliary or copula present, the auxiliary verb do (doesdid) needs to be inserted, along with inversion of the word order, to form a question (see do-support). For example:
  • She can dance. → Can she dance? (inversion of subject she and auxiliary can)
  • I am sitting here. → Am I sitting here? (inversion of subject I and copula am)
  • The milk goes in the fridge. → Does the milk go in the fridge? (no special verb present; do-support required)
The above concerns yes-no questions, but inversion also takes place in the same way after other questions, formed with interrogative words such as wherewhathow, etc. An exception applies when the interrogative word is the subject or part of the subject, in which case there is no inversion. For example:
  • I go. → Where do I go? (wh-question formed using inversion, with do-support required in this case)
  • He goes. → Who goes? (no inversion, because the question word who is the subject)
Note that inversion does not apply in indirect questionsI wonder where he is (not *... where is he). Indirect yes-no questions can be expressed using if or whether as the interrogative word: Ask them whether/if they saw him.
Negative questions are formed similarly; however if the verb undergoing inversion has a contraction with not, then it is possible to invert the subject with this contraction as a whole. For example:
  • John is going. (affirmative)
  • John is not going. / John isn't going. (negative, with and without contraction)
  • Is John not going? / Isn't John going? (negative question, with and without contraction)

Dependent clauses

The syntax of a dependent clause is generally the same as that of an independent clause, except that the dependent clause usually begins with a subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun (or phrase containing such). In some situations (as already described) the conjunction or relative pronoun that can be omitted. Another type of dependent clause with no subordinating conjunction is the conditional clause formed by inversion (see below).

Other uses of inversion

The clause structure with inverted subject and verb, used to form questions as described above, is also used in certain types of declarative sentence. This occurs mainly when the sentence begins with an adverbial or other phrase that is essentially negative or contains words such as onlyhardly, etc.: Never have I known someone so stupid; Only in France can such food be tasted.
In elliptical sentences (see below), inversion takes place after so (meaning "also") as well as after the negative neitherso do I, neither does she.
Inversion can also be used to form conditional clauses, beginning with shouldwere (subjunctive), or had, in the following ways:
  • should I win the race (equivalent to if I win the race);
  • were he a soldier (equivalent to if he were a soldier);
  • were he to win the race (equivalent to if he were to win the race, i.e. if he won the race);
  • had he won the race (equivalent to if he had won the race).
Other similar forms sometimes appear, but are less common. There is also a construction with subjunctive be, as in be he alive or dead (meaning "no matter whether he is alive or dead").
Use of inversion to express a third-person imperative is now mostly confined to the expression long live X, meaning "let X live long".


In an imperative sentence (one giving an order), there is usually no subject in the independent clause: Go away until I call you. It is possible, however, to include you as the subject for emphasis: You stay away from me.

Elliptical constructions

Many types of elliptical construction are possible in English, resulting in sentences that omit certain redundant elements. Various examples are given in the article on Ellipsis.
Some notable elliptical forms found in English include:
  • Short statements of the form I canhe isn'twe mustn't. Here the verb phrase (understood from the context) is reduced to a single auxiliary or other "special" verb, negated if appropriate. If there is no special verb in the original verb phrase, it is replaced by do/does/didhe doesthey didn't.
  • Clauses that omit the verb, in particular those like me toonor meme neither. The latter forms are used after negative statements. (Equivalents including the verb: I do too orso do II don't either or neither do I.)
  • Tag questions, formed with a special verb and pronoun subject: isn't it?were there?am I not?


The first published English grammar was a Pamphlet for Grammar of 1586, written by William Bullokar with the stated goal of demonstrating that English was just as rule-based as Latin. Bullokar's grammar was faithfully modeled on William Lily's Latin grammar, Rudimenta Grammatices (1534), used in English schools at that time, having been "prescribed" for them in 1542 by Henry VIII. Bullokar wrote his grammar in English and used a "reformed spelling system" of his own invention; but many English grammars, for much of the century after Bullokar's effort, were written in Latin, especially by authors who were aiming to be scholarly. John Wallis's Grammatica Linguae Anglicanae (1685) was the last English grammar written in Latin.
Even as late as the early 19th century, Lindley Murray, the author of one of the most widely used grammars of the day, was having to cite "grammatical authorities" to bolster the claim that grammatical cases in English are different from those in Ancient Greek or Latin.


  • Disputes in English grammar
  • English prefixes
  • Grammar checker
  • Split infinitive

    Welcome to the 8th lesson about Gujarati grammar. We will first learn about prepositionsnegationquestions,adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.
    We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Gujaratiand English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Gujarati and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Gujarati.
    andઅને[ane] Audio
    aboveઉપર[uper] Audio
    underહેઠળ[heeṭheḷ] Audio
    beforeપહેલાં[peheeleām] Audio
    afterપછી[pechheī] Audio
    in front ofસામે[seāme] Audio
    behindપાછળ[peāchheḷ] Audio
    far fromદૂર[deūr] Audio
    nearનજીક[nejeīk] Audio
    inમાં[meām] Audio
    insideઅંદરની બાજુ[amedereneī beājeu] Audio
    outsideબહાર[beheār] Audio
    withસાથે[seāthe] Audio
    withoutવગર[veguer] Audio
    aboutલગભગ[leguebhegu] Audio
    betweenવચ્ચે[veche'che] Audio
    butપરંતુ[peremeteu] Audio
    forમાટે[meāṭe] Audio
    fromમાંથી[meāmetheī] Audio
    toમાટે[meāṭe] Audio

    Preposition Grammar Rules

    The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.
    Prepositions + RulesGujarati + Pronunciation
    I eat without a knife
    [preposition + noun]
    હું છરી વગર ખાય શકું છું Audio
    [heum chhereī veguer kheāy śhekeum chheum]
    she lives near the church
    [verb + preposition]
    તેણી ચર્ચની નજીક રહે છે Audio
    [teeṇeī chere'cheneī nejeīk rehe chhe]
    he is taller than her
    [adjective + preposition]
    તેઓ તેણી કરતાં ઊંચા છે Audio
    [teeo teeṇeī kereteām ūmecheā chhe]
    he came with his small dog
    [preposition + pronoun]
    તેઓ તેમના નાના કૂતરા સાથે આવ્યાં Audio
    [teeo teemeneā neāneā keūtereā seāthe āve'yeām]
    can you come with me?
    [preposition + pronoun]
    તમે મારી સાથે આવી શકો છો? Audio
    [teme meāreī seāthe āveī śhekeo chheo?]

    Negation in Gujarati

    Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying noI can'tI don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.
    Negation + RulesGujarati + Pronunciation
    I understand you
    [affirmative form]
    હું તમને સમજી શકું છું Audio
    [heum temene semejeī śhekeum chheum]
    don't understand you
    [negation + verb]
    હું તમને સમજી નથી શકતો Audio
    [heum temene semejeī netheī śheketeo]
    this is not the correct word
    [negation + adjective]
    આ સાચો શબ્દ નથી Audio
    [ā seācheo śhebe'd netheī]
    don't leave me
    [imperative negation]
    મને છોડી ન દો Audio
    [mene chheoḍeī n deo]
    no problem
    [negation + noun]
    કોઈ સમસ્યા નથી Audio
    [keoī semese'yeā netheī]

    Negative SentencesGujarati + Pronunciation
    I don't speak French
    [negation + present tense]
    હું ફ્રેન્ચ બોલતો નથી Audio
    [heum phe'reene'ch beoleteo netheī]
    she didn't visit Germany
    [negation + past tense]
    તેણી જર્મનીની મુલાકાતે નથી ગયા Audio
    [teeṇeī jere'meneīneī meuleākeāte netheī gueyeā]
    he cannot see us
    [negative modal verb]
    તેઓ અમને જોઈ નથી શકતાં Audio
    [teeo amene jeoī netheī śheketeām ]
    can't she play chess?
    [interrogative negation]
    તેણી ચેસ રમી નથી શકતા? Audio
    [teeṇeī chees remeī netheī śheketeā?]
    we will not come late
    [negation + future tense]
    અમે મોડા નહિ આવીએ Audio
    [ame meoḍeā nehei āveī]

    Questions in Gujarati

    Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: whatwhycan you ...? Here are some common examples:
    how?કેવી રીતે?[keeveī reītee?] Audio
    what?શું?[śheum?] Audio
    who?કોણ?[keoṇe?] Audio
    why?શા માટે?[śheā meāṭee?] Audio
    where?ક્યાં?[ke'yeām?] Audio

    Questions + RulesGujarati + Pronunciation
    where do you live?
    [interrogative + verb]
    તમે ક્યાં રહો છો? Audio
    [teme ke'yeām reheo chheo?]
    does she speak Chinese?
    [interrogative verb]
    તેણી ચિની બોલી શકે છે? Audio
    [teeṇeī cheineī beoleī śheke chhee?]
    how much is this?
    [interrogative preposition]
    આ કેટલાનું છે? Audio
    [ā keeṭeleāneum chhee?]
    can I help you?
    [interrogative modal verb]
    હું તમને કંઈ મદદ કરી શકું? Audio
    [heum temene kemī meded kereī śhekeum?]
    what is your name?
    [interrogative preposition]
    તમારું નામ શું છે? Audio
    [temeāreum neām śheum chhee?]

    Adverbs in Gujarati

    It's time to learn the adverbs in Gujarati. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:
    nowહમણાં[hemeṇeām] Audio
    yesterdayગઈ કાલે[gueī keāle] Audio
    todayઆજે[āje] Audio
    tonightઆજે રાત્રે કે સાંજે[āje reāte're ke seāmeje] Audio
    tomorrowઆવતી કાલે[āveteī keāle] Audio
    soonટૂંક સમયમાં[ṭeūmek semeyemeām] Audio
    quicklyઝડપથી[jheḍepetheī] Audio
    slowlyધીમે ધીમે[dheīme dheīme] Audio
    togetherએક સાથે[ek seāthe] Audio
    veryઅતિશય[ateiśhey] Audio
    almostલગભગ[leguebhegu] Audio
    alwaysહંમેશાં[hememeeśheām] Audio
    usuallyસામાન્ય રીતે[seāmeāne'y reīte] Audio
    sometimesક્યારેક[ke'yeāreek] Audio
    rarelyભાગ્યે જ[bheāgue'ye j] Audio
    neverક્યારેય નહિં[ke'yeāreey neheim] Audio

    Adverbs + RulesGujarati + Pronunciation
    do you understand me now?
    [pronoun + adverb]
    તમે મને હવે સમજી શકો છો? Audio
    [teme mene heve semejeī śhekeo chheo?]
    I need help immediately
    [noun + adverb]
    મને તાત્કાલિક મદદની જરૂર છે Audio
    [mene teāte'keāleik mededeneī jereūr chhe]
    she is very intelligent
    [adverb + adjective]
    તેણી ખૂબ હોશિયાર છે Audio
    [teeṇeī kheūb heośheiyeār chhe]
    I will always love you
    [verb + adverb]
    હું હંમેશા તમને પ્રેમ કરીશ Audio
    [heum hememeeśheā temene pe'reem kereīśh]
    can we learn German together?
    [adverb in a question]
    આપણે સાથે મળીને જર્મન શીખી શકીએ? Audio
    [āpeṇe seāthe meḷeīne jere'men śheīkheī śhekeīe?]

    Pronouns in Gujarati

    We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Gujarati. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:
    Personal PronounsGujaratiPronunciation
    Iહું[heum] Audio
    youતમે[teme] Audio
    heતે[te] Audio
    sheતેણી[teeṇeī] Audio
    weઅમે[ame] Audio
    theyતેઓ[teeo] Audio

    Object PronounsGujaratiPronunciation
    meહું[heum] Audio
    youતમે[teme] Audio
    himતેમને[teemene] Audio
    herતેણીના[teeṇeīneā] Audio
    usઅમને[amene] Audio
    themતેમના[teemeneā] Audio

    Possessive PronounsGujaratiPronunciation
    myમારું[meāreum] Audio
    yourતમારું[temeāreum] Audio
    hisતેમની[teemeneī] Audio
    herતેણીના[teeṇeīneā] Audio
    ourઅમારું[ameāreum] Audio
    theirતેમનું[teemeneum] Audio

    Personal PronounsGujarati + Pronunciation
    I am your friend
    [1st pronoun + verb]
    હું તમારો મિત્ર છું Audio
    [heum temeāreo meite'r chheum]
    you speak very fast
    [2nd pronoun + adverb]
    તમે ખૂબ ઝડપથી બોલો છો Audio
    [teme kheūb jheḍepetheī beoleo chheo]
    he has three dogs
    [3rd pronoun + verb]
    તેમની પાસે ત્રણ કૂતરાં છે Audio
    [teemeneī peāse te'reṇ keūtereām chhe]
    she can speak German
    [3rd pronoun + verb]
    તેણી જર્મન બોલી શકે છે Audio
    [teeṇeī jere'men beoleī śheke chhe]
    we will not come late
    [1st plural pronoun]
    અમે મોડા નહિ આવીએ Audio
    [ame meoḍeā nehei āveī]
    they bought milk and bread
    [3rd plural pronoun]
    તેઓએ દૂધ અને બ્રેડ ખરીદી લીધા છે Audio
    [teeo deūdh ane be'reeḍ khereīdeī leīdheā chhe ]

    Object PronounsGujarati + Pronunciation
    can you tell me your name?
    [1st object pronoun]
    તમે મને તમારું નામ કહેશો? Audio
    [teme mene temeāreum neām keheeśheo?]
    I will give you money
    [2nd object pronoun]
    હું તમને પૈસા આપીશ Audio
    [heum temene peaiseā āpeīśh]
    she wrote him a letter
    [3rd object pronoun]
    તેણીએ તેને પત્ર લખ્યો Audio
    [teeṇeī teene pete'r lekhe'yeo]
    they visited her yesterday
    [3rd object pronoun]
    તેઓએ ગઇકાલે તેણીની મુલાકાત લીધી Audio
    [teeo gueikeāle teeṇeīneī meuleākeāt leīdheī]
    can she help us?
    [1st pl. object pronoun]
    તેણી અમને મદદ કરી શકે? Audio
    [teeṇeī amene meded kereī śhekee?]
    he gave them food
    [3rd pl. object pronoun]
    તેણે તેમને ખોરાક આપ્યો Audio
    [teeṇe teemene kheoreāk āpe'yeo]

    Possessive PronounsGujarati + Pronunciation
    my name is Maya
    [1st possessive pronoun]
    મારું નામ માયા છે Audio
    [meāreum neām meāyeā chhe]
    your brother lives here
    [2nd possessive pronoun]
    તમારા ભાઇ અહીં રહે છે Audio
    [temeāreā bheāi aheīm rehe chhe]
    her mother cooks for us
    [3rd possessive pronoun]
    તેણીના માતા અમારા માટે રસોઈ કરે છે Audio
    [teeṇeīneā meāteā ameāreā meāṭe reseoī kere chhe]
    his hobby is reading books
    [3rd possessive pronoun]
    તેમની હોબી પુસ્તકો વાંચવાની છે Audio
    [teemeneī heobeī peuse'tekeo veāmecheveāneī chhe]
    our dream is to visit Paris
    [1st pl. possessive pronoun]
    અમારું સ્વપ્ન પોરિસ ની મુલાકાત લેવાનું છે Audio
    [ameāreum se'vepe'n peoreis neī meuleākeāt leeveāneum chhe]
    their house is not far
    [3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
    તેમનું ઘર દૂર નથી Audio
    [teemeneum gher deūr netheī]

    Demonstrative PronounsGujaratiPronunciation
    this is my houseઆ મારું ઘર છે[ā meāreum gher chhe] Audio
    that restaurant is farતે રેસ્ટોરાં દૂર છે[te reese'ṭeoreām deūr chhe] Audio
    these apples are deliciousઆ સફરજન સ્વાદિષ્ટ છે[ā sepherejen se'veādeiṣe'ṭ chhe] Audio
    those stars are shinyપેલા તારાઓ ચળકતા છે[peeleā teāreāo cheḷeketeā chhe ] Audio

    Active voice (કર્તરી પ્રયોગ ) and Passive Voice (કર્મણી પ્રયોગ)

    Active Voice - Passive Voice

    Voice કુલ બે પ્રકાર ના પ્રયોગો છે.
    (1) Active voice અને (2) passive voice.
    જેને ગુજરાતીમા અનુંક્રમે આપણે કર્તરી પ્રયોગ અને કર્મની પ્રયોગ તરીકે ઓળખીએ છીએ.
    (1)Active voice (કર્તરી પ્રયોગ) :-
    જેમાં ક્રિયાનો કરનાર કર્તા મુખ્ય હોય છે. અને કર્તા તથા કર્મ સ્વસ્થાને હોયતો તે વાક્યActive Voice મા છે તેમ કહી શકાય.
    e.g  Sanjay plays chess.
    (2) Passive Voice (કર્મની પ્રયોગ) :-
    જેમાં કર્તા કરતા તેના કર્મને વિશેષ મહત્વ આપવામાં આવે છે.તેથી મૂળ કર્તાને કર્મને સ્થાને મુકવામાં આવેછે.આમ,કર્તા અને કર્મનું સ્થાન બદલાય છે. તેને Passive Voice મા વાક્ય છે તેમ કહી શકાય.
    e.g. -> Chess is Played by Sanjay.
    ● Active Voice નુ passive Voice મા રુપન્તેર :-
    Active Voice ની વાક્ય રચનાને Passive Voice માં રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે કેટલાક ફેરફાર થાય છે.જેને આપણે ઉદાહરણ સાથે સમજીએ.
    A.V: Ved        Watches      a movie
             કર્તા           ક્રિયાપદ           કર્મ
    P.V: A movie     is watched by Ved
               કર્મ            is    ભૂતકૃદંત  by  કરતા

    (‘કોણ’ પૂછવાથી જવાબ મળે તેકર્તા અને ‘શું’ તથા ‘કોને’ પૂછવાથી જવાબ મળેતે કર્મ)
    આમ, વાક્યનું Active Voice માંથી Passive Voice મા રૂપાંતરકરતી વખતે નીચે પ્રમાણે  ફેરફાર થાય છે.
    (1)    વાક્યમા કર્તાનુ સ્થાન કર્મ લે છે.
    (2)    વાક્યમાં કર્મનુ સ્થાન કર્તા લે છે.
    (3)    કાળપ્રમાણે યોગ્ય સહાયકારક ક્રિયાપદ મુકાય છે.
    (4)    ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકૃદંત મુકાય છે.
    (5)    વાક્યના અંતે By દ્વારા કર્તા, કર્મનું સ્થાન લે છે.
    (6)    જયારે કર્તા કર્મ બને અને કર્મ કર્તા બને છે ત્યારે એકવચન કે બહુવચનના નામ મુજબ સહાયકારક ક્રિયાપદ મુકાય છે.
    I - by me        We - by us
    You- by you  You - by you
    He- by him
    She- by her
    It- by it           They- by them
    Note :-
    ●       Voice  બદલતી વખતે વાક્યનો કાળ બદલાતો નથી.
    ●       Passive Voice મા વાક્યમાં ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકૃદંત રૂપ જ વપરાય છે
    ●     ચાલુ ભવિષ્યકાળ (Future Continuous Tense) તથા તમામ ચાલુ પૂર્ણ કાળ (Perfect Continuous
    Tense) ના વાક્યોનું Passive voice  થઈ શકે નહિ.
    ●    ચાલુંકાલ (Continuous Tense) ના Passive
    Voice મા ક્રિયાપદના ભૂતકૃદંતના રૂપની સાથે being વપરાય છે.
    ●   Passive voice મા મોટા ભાગે ‘by’વપરાય છે, અને
    ક્યારેક ‘in’પણ વપરાય છે.
    (1) સાદોવર્તમાન કાળ (Simple Present Tense):-
    Active voice:- ક્રિયાપદનુ મૂળરૂપ (ક્યારેક –S-કે –es પ્રત્યાય સાથે)
    Passive voice:- is / am/ are/ + ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકૃદંત રૂપ
    e.g.-> He draws a picture.(Active)
               A picture is drawn by him. (Passive)

             -> We hold these meetings in the office.(Active)
                These meetings are held in the office.(Passive)

         ->    He drinks water. (Active)
                 Water is drunk by him. (Passive)
    ● વાક્યમાં જયારે કર્તા અથવા કર્મના સ્થાને શબ્દના બદલે phrase હોય ત્યારે તે phrase ન સ્થાન પણ બદલાય છે.
    e.g. -> Mr.Sanjay manages a big industrial empire. (Active)
          A big industrial empire is managed by Mr.Sanjay. (Passive)
        ->The entire staff of our office respects Mr.Sathwara(Active)
          Mr.Sathwara is respected by the entire staff of our office. (Passive)
    ● જયારે કોઈ વાક્યમા ક્રિયાપદ સાથે નામયોગી અવયવ (preposition) જોડાયેલ હોય તો તે વાક્ય નુ Passive મા રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે preposition  મા કોઈ ફેરફાર થતો નથી.
    e.g. -> We object to this proposal. (Active)
          This proposal is objected to by us. (Passive)
        ->A nurse looks after this little girl. (Active)
          This little girl is looked after by a nurse. (Passive)
    · નકાર વાક્ય :-
    ● નકાર વાક્યનુ ‘Passive voice’ મા રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે ‘do’ કે ‘does’ નીકળી જાય છે.અને સહાય કારક ક્રિયાપદ (am, is, are) સાથે ‘not’ મુકાય છે.
    e.g. Sejal does not watch  movies. (Active)
        Movies are not watched by Sejal. (Passive)
    ·  પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-
    પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય બે પ્રકારના હોય છે,-
    (1) Do/Does થી શરૂ થતાં
    (2) પ્રશ્નાર્થ સુચક શબ્દથી શરૂ થતા. Do/Does વાળા પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્યનુ Passive voice મા રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે Do/Does નીકળી જાય છે.અને તેને બદલે to be નુ યોગ્ય રૂપ (am, is, are) વાક્યની શરૂઆત મા મુકાય છે. What,
    Why, When, How  વગેરે શબ્દો એમ જ રહે છે.
    e.g.-> Do you play cricket ? (Active)
               Is cricket played by you ? (Passive)
        -> When does he complete the home wark? (Active)
              When is the home work completed by him ? (Passive)
    (2) સાદો ભૂતકાળ (Simple Past Tense):-
    Active Voice:- ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકાળનુ રૂપ
    Passive Voice:- was/ were + ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકૃદંત રૂપ
    e.g. -> The special commandos surrounded  the building. (Active)
          The building was surrounded by the special commandos. (Passive)
        ->I saw an accident yesterday. (Active)
          An accident was seen by me yesterday. (Passive)
        ->We broke a glass. (Active)
          A glass was broken by us. (Passive)
    · નકાર વાક્ય :-
    ● નકાર વાક્યનુ ‘Passive Voice’ મા રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે ‘did’ નીકળી જાય છે. અને સહાયકારક ક્રિયાપદ (was/
    were) સાથે ‘not’ મુકાય છે.
    e.g., Parthi did not complete the project. (Active)
        The project was not completed by Parthi. (Passive)
    ·  પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-
    ->Did he write answers in the classroom ? (Active)
      Were the answers written by him in the classroom ? (Passive)
    ->Who broke the mirror ? (Active)
      By whom was the mirror broken ?(Passive)
    (4) ચાલુવર્તમાન કાળ (Present Continuous Tense):-
    Active Voice:  is/ am/ are + વર્તમાનકૃદંત
    Passive Voice:  is/ am/ are + being + ભૂતકૃદંત

    e.g., -> I am eating apples. (Active)
           Apples are being eaten by me. (Passive)
        -> Mr.Shah is teaching English. (Active)
           English is being taught by Mr.Sharma . (Passive)
        ->My mother is preparing food. (Active)
          Food is being prepared by my mother. (Passive)
    · નકાર વાક્ય :-
    e.g. ->I am not taking lunch. (Active)
         Lunch is not being taken by me. (Passive)
        ->Children are not playing cricket in garden. (Active)
          Cricket is not being played by children in garden. (Passive)
    · પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-
    e.g.-> Is he playing cricket in the playground ? (Active)
          Is cricket being played by him in the playground ? (Passive)
        ->Where is he putting his book ? (Active)
          Where is his book being put by him ? (Passive)
         ->Who is teaching you now ? (Active)
           By whom are you being taught now ? (Passive)
    (5)ચાલુ ભૂતકાળ (Past Continuous Tense) :-

    Active voice :  was/ were + વર્તમાનકૃદંત
    Passive voice :  was/ were + being + ભૂતકૃદંત

    e.g. -> Rakesh was eating an apple. (Active)
           An apple was being eaten by Rakesh. (Passive)
        ->The Pupils were learning their lessons. (Active)
          Their lessons were being learnt by the pupils.(Passive)
         ->When I went to home , they were eating Panipuri. (Active)
           When I went to home Panipuri was being eaten. (Passive)
    · નકાર વાક્ય :-
    e.g.-> I was not preparing food, when he came. (Active)
          Food was not being prepard  by me when he came. (Passive)
        ->They were not drawing the picture. (Active)
          The picture was not being drawn by them. (Passive)
    · પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-
    e.g., -> Was she drawing a picture then ? (Active)
           Was a picture being drawn by then. (Passive)
        ->What were you doing there ? (Active)
          What was being done by you there ? (Passive)
    (6) પૂર્ણ વર્તમાનકાળ (Present Perfect Tense) :-
    Active Voice:- has/ have + ભૂતકૃદંત
    Passive voice:- has/ have + been + ભૂતકૃદંત
    e.g.-> Bhairav has drawn this picture. (Active)
          This picture has been drawn by Bhairav. (Passive)
        ->I have finished my work now. (Active)
          My work has been finished now. (Passive)
        ->They have taken all the material. (Passive)
    · નકાર વાક્ય :
    e.g.-> You haven’t finished your work. (Active)
          You work hasn’t been finished by you. (Passive)
        -> Ved hasn’t completed homework.
           Homework hasn’t been completed by Smit.
    · પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-
    e.g.-> Have the girls sung the prayers ?
          Have the prayers been sung by the girls ?
        ->Why have you brought only note books?
          Why have only note books been brought by you ?
    · પૂર્ણ ભૂતકાળ (Past Perfect Tense) :-
    Active voice: had + ભૂતકૃદંત
    Passive voice: had + been + ભૂતકૃદંત
    e.g.->My brother had taken breakfast before they sang . (Active)
         Breakfast had been taken by my brother before they sang. (Passive)
        ->He had sold the car before we reached. (Active)
         The car had been sold by him before we reached. (Passive)
    · નકાર વાક્ય :
    e.g. ->The girl had not sold the pane before I went there. (Active)
          The pen had not been sold by the girl before I went there. (Passive)
         ->He had not disclosed the secret before evening. (Active)
           The secret had not been disclosed by him before evening. (Passive)
    · પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :
    e.g. -> Had he warned the thief before firing the gun ? (Active)
          Had the thief been warned by him before firing the gun ? (Passive)
        ->Who had broken the glass when I went outside ? (Active)
          By whom had the glass been broken when I went outside ?
    (8)પૂર્ણ ભવિષ્યકાળ (Future Perfect tense) :-
    Active voice : will / shall + have + ભૂતકૃદંત
    Passive voice : will / shall + have been + ભૂતકૃદંત
    E.g. -> They will have finished the breakfast by eight. (Active)
          They breakfast will have been finished by eight. (Passive)
         ->We shall have withdrawn money from the bank by tomorrow. (Active)
           Money will have been withdrawn from the bank by tomorrow. (Passive)
    · નકાર વાક્ય :-
    E,g, -> We will haven’t finished the project by five. (Active)
          The project will have not been finished by us by five. (Passive)
    · પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :
    e.g.->  Will you have signed all the letter before they close the office ? (Active)
           Will all the letters have been signed before the office is closed ? (Passive)
    (9) Modal Auxiliaries :
    (Can, Could, May, Might, Shall, Should, Will, Would etc.)
    Simple Modal Auxiliaries:
    (1) Active voice: Auxiliary +  ક્રિયાપદ નુ મૂળરૂપ
       Passive voice: Auxiliary + be + ભૂતકૃદંત
    Perfect Modal Auxiliaries
    (2) Active voice: Auxiliary +  have + ભૂતકૃદંત
       Passive voice: Auxiliary + have been + ભૂતકૃદંત
    e.g. -> The government should deal with the corrupt officials strictly. (Active)
          The corrupt officials should be dealt with strictly. (Passive)
        -> Shital will have finished her home work before 6 O’clock. (Active)
           Shital’s homework will been finished by her before 6’Oclock. (Passive)
    · નકાર વાક્ય :-
    E.g,. -> He can not have made toys. (Active)
           Toys can not have been made by him. (Passive)
        -> Untill he work hard , he can not achieve success. (Active)
           Untill he work hard, success can not be achieve. (Passive)
    · પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય:-
    e.g. -> Should we give respect to that person ? (Active)
          Should that person be given respect by us? (Passive)
        ->Who must have built that beautiful building ? (Active)
          By whom must that beautiful building have been built ?(Passive)
    (10) Infinitive :-
    ● Infinitive એટલે to સાથેનુક્રિયાપદ,
    ઉદાહરણ તરીકે to err, to help, to complete, to walk વગેરે .
    ● ‘Adjective’કે ‘Adverb’ પછી infinitive વપરાય ત્યારે
    તે  Adjective કે Adverb  ના અર્થ મા ક્રિયાપદ દ્વારા વધરો સૂચવે છે. અને તે Adjective કે Adverb ને qualify કરે છે.
    e.g. I am too weak to walk.
    અહિયા weak વિશેષણને ‘to walk’ qualify કરે છે.
    આ જ પ્રમાણે ‘Noun’ પછી Infinitive વપરાય ત્યારે ‘Noun’ ના અર્થમાં વધારો સૂચવે છે.》તેને qualify કરે છે.
    e.g., He has a project to complete.
    અહિયા ‘Project’ નામને ‘to complet’ qualify કરે છે.
    Infinitive ધરાવતા વાક્યનું Passive voice મા રૂપાંતર કરતા to be + ભૂતકૃદંત વપરાય છે.
    e.g.-> I am to finish this work . (Active)
         This work is to be finished by me. (Passive)
        ->We have to finish this project today.(Active)
          This project his to be finished today. (Passive)
        ->Tea is too hot to drink.(Active)
          Tea is too hot to be drunk . (Passive)
        ->It is time to send the telegram to be sent .(Active)
          It is time the telegram to be sent . (Passive)
        ->I expect Mohan to do this. (Active)
          I expect this to be done by Mohan. (Passive)
    (11)Imperative  Sentences :- (આજ્ઞારથ વાકયો)
    Active voice:- ક્રિયાપદ નુ મૂળરૂપ
    Passive Voice :-
    Let + કર્મ + be + ભૂતકૃદંત
    કર્મ + should + be +ભૂતકૃદંત
    You are requested/ordered/advised + to + Sentence
    e.g. ->Switch off the light. (Active)
         Let the light be switched off. (Passive)
         The light should be switched off. (Passive)
         You are requested to switch off the light. (Passive)
         Sell this old car off. (Active)
         Let this old car be sold off. (Passive)
         This old car should be sold off. (Passive)
         You are requested to sell this old car.
    (12) Sentences beginning with ‘let’ :-
    Active voice :- Let + ………+ ક્રિયાપદનુ મૂળરૂપ
    Passive voice :- Let + ……….+ be + ભૂતકૃદંત
    e.g.->Let Mr. Sanjay preside over the conference . (Active)
         Let the conference be presided over by Mr.yadav. (Passive)
        ->Let Srinath coach our fast bowlers. (Active)
         Let our fast bowlers be coached by srinath .(Passive)
    (13) It is said
    e.g. Sugar tastes sweet. (Active)
        It is said sugar tastes sweet. (Passive)
    Passive Voice to Active Voice :-
    (1)    The house was painted red by them. (Passive)
           They painted the house red. (Active)
    (2)    We shall be blamed by everyone.(Passive)
           Everyone will blame us .(Active)
    (3)    The harvest is gathered by the farmer.(Passive)
          The farmer gathers the harvest. (Active)
    (4)    It was time the watch to be repaired .(Passive)
          It was time to repair the watch. (Active)
    (5)    You are ordered to be quiet. (Passive)
           Be quiet.(Active)
    (6)    Let a movie be watched by us.(Passive)
           Let us watch a movie.(Active)
    (7)    A red alert has been sounded in the city.(Passive)
          The police has sounded a red alert in the city.(Active)
    (8)    By whom was the metro rail project inaugurate ? (Passive)
          Who inaugurate the metro rail project?(Active)
    (9)    Are the attendance rules being relaxed ?(Passive)
          Are the college authorities relaxing the attendance rules ?(Active)
    (10)  Nothing can be achieved without hard work.(Passive)
          Try yourself.

    SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 01, 2013

    Tips for Students and Teachers


    Tips for Students to Develop Vocabulary:
    ·                     Read English newspapers and watch English news channels everyday.
    ·                     Read English books and magazines every week.
    ·                     Watch english movies and T.V. serials.
    ·                     If you find any unfamiliar word, look its meaning in the dictionary.
    ·                     Keep pocket dictionary with you. Always learn 25 to 30 new English words.
    ·                     Always remember new words. For that you should use new words in your routin language.
    ·                     If you have friends who also want to improve their vocabulary, then you can form a group and          share new words with each other. You can meet at regular intervals and measure your progress.
    ·                     Learn the root words. Root words are words from which words grow with the addition of prefixes and suffixes.
    ·                     You can also learn english vocabulary  through online computer programmes qnd softwares.
    ·                     Keep revising. While it is important to read and learn new words, it is equally important to revise what you have learnt.

    How to Improve Grammar

    Grammar is the set of rules that govern the usage of English language. A strong grasp of English grammar is therefore of the greatest importance.

     Most non-native English speakers make grammatical mistakes while speaking in English. Improving grammar takes time and effort but it is well worth it. Here are some tips which will help you improve English grammar

    Understand the building blocks of grammar

     As a first step, it is important to know the different building blocks of grammar like nouns, pronouns, articles, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. The internet is full of resources about these and it is usually a good idea to understand them well.

    Pay attention to sentence structures

     When you read an article or watch a movie, it is important to pay attention to how sentences are constructed. This practice helps ingrain different sentence structures and will help your spoken and written English.

    Practice when you can

     This tip can never be overemphasized. As an English learner, it is extremely important for you to talk in English at any given opportunity. If you do not have partners to practise with, then try to speak in front of the mirror.

    Grammar exercises will help you

     Try doing different grammar exercises and find out your weaknesses. These exercises are freely available on the internet. It is only after you are able to correctly assess your weaknesses that you will be able to rectify them.

    Find a mentor

     Many learners have improved their grammar working with a mentor. A mentor could even be a friend who has a strong command over English grammar. You must speak only in English with your mentor and ask the mentor to point out your mistakes. This real time feedback is very beneficial in improving grammar.

    Join a course

     Many students find that an English improvement course is the quickest way to improve English grammar.  If joining a classroom program is difficult, then an online course is a great option.

    How to Learn English with the help of Gujarati Language

    Learning a language is rewarding and useful. Native Gujarati speakers can learn English through a variety of sources, including tutors, films, books, newspapers and English-speaking friends. Once students have mastered some basic English skills, such as sentence structure, verbs and vocabulary, it is only a matter of practice before they can become fluent in the English language.

    1. Look for an English-language class in your area. Many schools and colleges teach the English language, and there may be tutors available that can provide you with private lessons, if that fit in your budget.

    2. Learn the English alphabet. The English alphabet, much like the Gujarati alphabet, consists of characters that represent vowels and consonants. While many Indian cities and towns still speak Gujarati, look out for English signage in your town and practice identifying the English letters.

    3. Seek out Gujarati to English books such as" The Student's Modern Dictionary" by Desai and Mehta or the" Universal English-Gujarati Dictionary" by P.G. Deshpande. A Gujarati-English dictionary provides you with Gujarati to English translations.

    4. Practice learning English with Gujarati computer-based software. There are many software programs available for Gujarati speakers who want to learn and practice their English skills, such as The Translation People.

    5. Incorporate English into your life as much as possible. This includes reading English books and newspapers and watching English films. There are many English-written newspapers in India, such as the Times of India, Indian Express, Bilkul and many more that you can use to brush up on your English-speaking skills. This will incorporate English into your life in a real and meaningful way. Start with simple books containing pictures that can provide a context for the storyline. Build your way up to newspapers.

    6. Watching English films with Gujarati subtitles or watching Gujarati films with English subtitles is a good way to become engaged in plot or story line and observe how the English language is used. The visual aspects of the film will provide context for the dialogue. This will improve your reading and listening skills in English. You'll also gather an understanding of common phrases and slang.

    7. Watch popular sports games in India, such as cricket, with English commentary. This will help you stay interested in learning because you're watching something you understand and learning to think about it in English.

    8. Engage in conversations with an English-speaking friend. This will familiarize you with real-life conversations. It will also speed up the learning process. If your learning is restricted to a one-hour session per day, for example, it will take a lot longer for you to learn compared to how quickly you can learn if you incorporate English into your daily life. Plan a casual outing with your English-speaking friend so you can learn how to converse in different situations.

    9. Use your English/Gujarati dictionary to expand your vocabulary. Once you have a grasp of sentence structure and verbs, learning vocabulary is just a matter of memorization and practice. Try to learn new vocabulary words every day and incorporate them into English conversations.

    10. Record your conversations so you can hear how your voice sounds when speaking English. Compare your pronunciation to that of native English speakers. Correct yourself and practice the words that you experience difficulty pronouncing.


    Exercise for Word Formation

    • Fill in the blanks using the appropriate form of words given in the brackets.
    (1) It was the most ______ experience. (Humiliation)
    (2) She has a ______ mind (calculate)
    (3) There must be ______ in one's nature. (good)
    (4) This man is ______. He will not help you. (noble)
    (5) You should ______ this items. (class)
    (6) I like my Gujarat which is ______ (vibrate)
    (7) Nothing is more ______ than your deeds. (example)
    (8) He is ______ . He can't do this. (confident)
    (9) He has a ______ nature. (possess)
    (10) He was ______ . He couldn't think clearly. (gloom)
    (11) In those days there was a ______ riot. (community)
    (12) There was ______ in his speech. (sharp)
    (13) The ants are generally ______ (miser)
    (14) He was playing a ______ game (defend)
    (15) ______ exam will be given tomorrow. (compete)
    (16) What ______ him so oftenly ? (fury)
    (17) There was a bomb ______ near the station. (Explode)
    (18) He ______ his head and entered the church. (low)
    (19) Wasps ______ Nehru in the jail. (terror)
    (20) He will ______ your statement. (false)
    (21) I noticed ______ in the administrator. (strict)
    (22) I am tired of this bird's ______ call (persist)
    (23) So many patriots gave ______ for the nation. (Martyr)
    (24) ______ is a virtue. (forgive)
    (25) There is no ______ of the guest's arrival. (certain)
    (26) ______ of this land is wonderful. (fertile)
    (27) ______ in living creatures is sure. (Mortal)
    (28) Will you tell me his ______ ? (offend)
    (29) ______ will be given to you. (prefer)
    (30) You will have to prove your______ (innocent)
    (31) Seeing your ______, I don't trust you. (neglect)
    (32) There should not be ______ in any letter. (correct)
    (33) He is tired of ______ (lonely)
    (34) ______ tribute was given to the dead. (flower)
    (35) I was sorry knowing his ______ (success)
    (36) He praised my ______ (obey)
    (37) He wanted ______ the piece into two. (half)
    (38) He was ______ to talk with that man. (repulsion)
    (39) There are some ______ points about any country. (admire)
    (40) He will get his licence______ (new)
    (41) He is ______. He will not support you. (co-operate)
    (42) We should ______ with others to win the grace of God. (sympathy)
    (43) This clay lacks ______ quality. (adhesion)
    (44) Kalam's Sir was ______ even if his wife denied to serve Kalam. (perturbed)
    (45) Kalam's one of the friends accepted ______ (priest)
    (46) Where do they ______ ? Find out. (various)
    (47) He was restless because of some ______ changes (environment)
    (48) He was ______ to accept the offer. (desire)
    (49) Pl. give him my sweet ______ (remember)
    (50) He wanted ______ me (friend)
    (51) He remained ______ on the beat (watch)
    (52) Pity the nation that ______ the bully as hero. (claim)
    (53) He is ______ Don't ask for any coin from him in the name of religion (religious)
    (54) He is ______ . He is unable to take quick decision. (decision)
    (55) ______ are punished sooner or later. (virtue)
    (56) The end of the story is ______ (pathos)
    (57) I have ______ it somewhere. I will find it out. (place)
    (58) Nehru welcomed the ______ in a prison. (divert)
    (59) Many ______ students get poor result. (attentive)
    (60) There was a mute ______ on the boy's face. (accept)

    Exercise for Function Words

    • Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with proper words from those given in the
    (1) Arpan walked on a rope ______ he were a good acrobat. (as, like, as if)
    (2) Efficient ______ he was, he was not appointed. (though, however, as)
    (3) ______ was I asked than I replied. (As soon as, no sooner, hardly)
    (4) ______ he was confused, he was mute. (since, however, though)
    (5) ______ his failing health, he was enthusiastic and zestful. (because of, despite, in order to)
    (6) ______ the gust of wind could break the idol had not entered his mind. (what, that, as)
    (7) ______ you think is not in your favour. (that, what, which)
    (8) Don't envy ______ you may be happy. (so, so that, therefore)
    (9) He couldn't think clearly as he was in ______ confusion. (little, a few, a little)
    (10) He wants ______ a shirt as is cheap and having the quality. (same, such, that)
    (11) He wants nothing ______ your grace (as, but, as)
    (12) I believe in ______ you believe. (that, what, as)
    (13) He completed his work earlier ______ he could leave the site earlier. (in order to, in order
    that, inspite of)
    (14) Deaf ______ he was, he attended the musical concert. (though, however, as)
    (15) I want ______ boys to complete this work. It can't be done single handed. (few, a few, a
    (16) ______ you go, you will find people with certain problems. (where, wherever, whenever)
    (17) See me ______ you are free. (where, when, how)
    (18) ______ of the residents in this colony has a car. They have bicycles or scooters. (some, none,
    (19) He was in ______ confusion, he could not think clearly. (few, little, a little)
    (20) He set motionless ______ he were innocent. (like, as, as if)
    (21) He also acted ______ everybody did. (like, as, as if)
    (22) Behave here ______ the rules and regulations. (in accordance with, because of, in order that)
    (23) He was in ______ a plight ______ he couldn't decide what to do. (so-that, such-that, sameas)
    (24) ______ darker the night is, the denser it is. (A, An, The)
    (25) He has joined ______ N.C.C. (the, an, a)
    (26) ______ you do, you won't have any gain. (what, whatever, however)
    (27) He was ______ indecisive that he had to stop on every turning point. (such, so, as)
    (28) This boy seems ______ small to be a soldier. (enough, too, though)
    (29) Take deep breaths ______ you can overcome fear (in order to, in order that, owing to)
    (30) His late arrival in the function was ______ the great confusion of traffic. (on account of, due
    to, because of)
    (31) ______ had he stood up to speak when every body started clapping. (No sooner, As soon
    as, Scarcely)
    (32) ______ he couldn't know the nature of clapping, he kept on speaking. (Though, since, Because)
    (33) ______ have you sent the cheque to ? (Who, Whom, To Whom)
    (34) He prefers Bio-chemistry ______ pharmacy. (than, to, and)
    (35) ______ of them had self respect. They all behaved insensibly. (some, None, Each)
    (36) He is firm in his decision. He will not give ______ his employer. (in, up, to)
    (37) He translated the passage ______ making them know its meaning. (so, with a view to, in order
    (38) You can't move ______ you will. This is a prohibited area. (When, Where, Wherever)
    (39) He was ______ confident that he declared himself a winner. (too, enough, so)
    (40) The possibility ______ wind was responsible for a tear was remote. (as, that, when)
    (41) He is dealing with everybody ______ honestly ______ sincerely. Everybody adores him. (neither...
    nor, not only... but also, either .... or)
    (42) They both were confused ______ of them could express any view. (either, neither, none)
    (43) ______ under priviledged must be supported. (A, An, The)
    (44) Ask ______ of the boys if he is interested in the visit. (each, all, some)
    (45) Adamant ______ he was in the beginning, he had to submit when he was persuaded. (however,
    as, though)
    (46) He was ______ affluent not to live luxuriously. (so, too, enough)
    (48) ______ may persuade me, I'll not favour him. (Who, Whomever, Whoever)
    (49) Govinda glanced ______ the window to notice an intruder. (to, at, across)
    (50) He would tolerate ______ begging. (inspite of, instead of, in addition to)

    Exercise for Verb Forms


    • Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate forms of verbs given
    in the brackets against each.
    (1) A lady ______ money from the bank, reached the hospital. (withdraw)
    (2) ______ the doctor not ______ in time, the patient would have died. (come)
    (3) This assignment work ______ by the time you return from Surat. (will+Submit)
    (4) Vraj ______ had he confessed his fault. (can + forgive)
    (5) Some boys and girls ______ irregular for the last fifteen days. (be)
    (6) You are advised ______ your car ______ in authorised workshops only. (have, service)
    (7) The match ______ before we reached the stadium. (start)
    (8) I came to know very late that my name ______ for the national scholarship. (send)
    (9) They haven't ______ their tickets ______ yet. (have, book)
    (10) Gandhiji ______ bath with cold water in winter when he was in the jail. (use, take)
    (11) ______ all the voters ______ I would have been declared a winner. (vote)
    (12) No sooner ______ a picture ______ than a dealer made a sensational bid. (display)
    (13) Nobody had seen a culprit ______ to the court. (take)
    (14) Think positively so that good impression ______ in an interview. (create)
    (15) He was too smart ______ (cheat)
    (16) What cannot be cured ______ (must + endure)
    (17) Perform as you ______ (have, instruct)
    (18) She came to know that her name ______ for the national scholarship. (send)
    (19) The decision ______ likely ______ this evening. (be+take)
    (20) Hardly ______ Govinda ______ mending the idol when his son interrupted him. (complete)
    (21) ______ is believing (see)
    (22) How long ______ your father ______ in this company ? (serve)
    (23) He ______ me ______ beside him before he asked for money. (make, sit)
    (24) By the time you leave this spot, so many persons ______ to see you. (will+come)
    (25) You ______ nicely. Why did you not do so ? (can+behave)
    (26) I saw the road ______ (resurface)
    (27) While the experiment ______ in the lab, one of the students fainted. (make)
    (28) I requested him to conclude yet he kept on ______ to justify himself. (shout)
    (29) Had you taken a little interest in the debate you ______ later on. (will + enjoy)
    (30) Why do you ______ your father ______ so many things this time also ? (get, purchase)
    (31) The speech ______ over, there came resounding applause. (be)
    (32) It is reading that ______ us ______. (make, think)
    (33) You ______ me before you invested money with this bank. (should+ask)
    (34) By the next week, this illegal construction ______ (will+demolish)
    (35) Keep silence. An experiment ______ (explain)
    (36) By tomorrow, these mangoes ______ (will+ripen)
    (37) ______ a suspect ______ sternly, he would have admitted his crime. (ask)
    (38) You ______ the compound ______ tomorrow for your mischief. (make + clean)
    (39) ______ his role, he left the stage. (have + perform)
    (40) Your office ______ already ______ You may shift the furniture. (renovate0
    (41) Had you answered politely, your teacher ______ not ______ his temper. (will + lose)
    (42) You are requested not ______ your work ______ here. (have + do)
    (43) We ______ to remove poverty for years without making efforts in that direction. (have + consider)
    (44) How long ______ you ______ here ? (be)
    (45) Are you used to ______ the flowers ? (arrange)
    (46) All these papers ______ before they were sent to board (verify)
    (47) Why did your teacher not make you ______ ? (play)
    (48) His name ______ , he stood up to receive the prize. (have, declare)
    (49) After he ______ his licence with him, he locked the door. (keep)
    (50) The class was silent because presence ______ (take)
    (51) Why did you not ______ any sweets ______ before the guests arrived. (have, prepare)

    Chart of All Tenses

    p5IMUL XaNM
    A.V. STF"qwho
    P.V. કર્મ What-by – whom
    Simple Present Tense
    always/ everyday, ever week, every year, sometimes, usually, generally, often, a seldom, at noon, at night, in the evening, mostly, ;tI ;GFTG
    CSFZ      D]PlS|P /D]PlSPs/es
    GSFZ      do/does notD]PlSP
    5|`GFY"    Wh XaN + do/does + STF" +D]PlSP
    Am/is/are + lS|P5P E}TS'NgT
    - I write a letter.
    - A letter is writtenby me.
    - I don’t write a letter
    - He speaks English?
    - Does he speakEnglish?

    RF,] JT"DFG SF/
    Present continuous Tense
    Look, see, watch, hear, listen, run, hears keep, silence, stop, observe, now, nowadays, these days, this moment, at present at this moment.
    am/ is/ are lS|P5N  ing
    am/ is/ are + being +lS|P5PG]\ E}TS'NgT
    - Rakesh is writing a letter.
    - A letter is being written by Rakesh.
    5}6" JT"DFG SF/
    Present perfect Tense

    Just, just now, ever, never, yet, still, already, recently, totally, completely, since, for, so far, by now
    have/ has + lSP5PG]\ E}TS'NT
    have/has+ been +lS|IF5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
    - They have playedchess.
    - Heena has written a poem.
    - A poem has been written by Heena.
    RF,]5}6 JT"DFG SF/
    Present perfect Continuous Tense
    Since, for, since when, how long
    have/ has + been +lS|P5NG]\ ing
    - They have been playing chess.
    ;FNM E}TSF/
    Simple past Tense
    Yesterday, ago, previous, las day/ week, oneday, once, before a week, in 1947, that year
    CSFZ      lSP5NG]\ E}TSF/
    GSFZ     did+not+D]PlSP
    Did+STF" +D]PlSP
    was/ were + lS|P5NG]\ E}TS'NtG
    - I wrote a letter.
    - A letter was writtenby me.
    - I did not write a letter.
    Did I write a letter?

    RF,] E}TSF/
    Past Continuous Tense
    When, while, as, then, at that time, at this time yesterday
    was/ were  lS|P5NG[ing
    was/ were + being +lS|P5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
    - Mr. Sanjay was teaching English.
    - English was being taught by Mr. Sanjay.
    5}6” E}TSF/
    Past Perfect Tense
    before, after, when, ago, if
    had+ lSP5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
    had+ been+ lS|P5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
    They had finished it before I reached.
    RF,] 5}6” E}TSF/
    since, for, since when, how long
    had+ been+ lS|P5NG]\ing
    - They had been playing chess.
    Simple Future Tense
    tomorrow, the following, next day after tomorrow
    shall/ will + D]bI lS|IF5N
    shall/ will+ be+lS|P5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
    - I will send a message.
    - A message will be sent by me.
    Future Perfect Tense
    by the end of ;DI ;]RS XaNM4
    by the next, before the next, by 5.00 o’clock
    shall/ will + have+lS|P5PG]\ E]TS'NtG
    shall/ will + have+ been+
    lS|P5NG]\ E}TS'NtG
    - I will have finishedit by the end of this month.

    ;CFP lS|IF5N
    Simple modal Auxi
    can, could, may, might, shall, should will, would must, dare, ought
    ;PlS|P+ D]PlS|P
    have+ lS|P5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
    ;CFPlS|IF5N + have+ been+ lS|IF5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
    - I can speak English
    - English can bespoken by me.
    5}6" ;CF lS|IF5N
    Perfect modal auxi
    -If  STF"  had
    - Had STF" V3
    _ unless had
    - guess, think, assume
    ;PlS|P+have+ lS|P5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
    ;CFPlS|IF5N + have+ been+ lS|IF5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
    - If the doctor had come earlier, hecould have saved the patient
    get G]\ SF/ D]HA ~5 +STF" to JF/] lS|P5P
    get G]\ SF/ ~5+ SD" +lS|P5PG]\ E]TS'NgT
    - I got my peon to post the letter.
    - I got the letterposted by my peon.
    Have G]\ SF/~5 + STF" +to   lJGFG]\ lS|P5P
    Have G]\ SF/~5 + SD""  +lS|P5PG]\ E]TS'NgT
    - I had a driverdriven my car
    Make G]\ SF/~5 + STF" +to   lJGFG]\ lS|P5P
    Make G]\ SF/~5 + STF" +to   lJGFG]\ lS|P5P
    - I make him stand in the class.
    Used to
    used to + D]bI lS|IF5N
    used to be v3
    - I used to wake up early.
    to be used to
    to be used to + lS|5G[ing.
    - He is used towriting in English.
    Present participle
    ;F{ 5|YD BFPH
    v BFPHP 5C[,FPreposition on, with, without, before, after when whole, busy
    ALH] lS|IF5N
    start, stop, see, find
    lS|IF5NG[ ing
    being +  lS|IF5NG]\ E]TS'NgT
    - I watched himdoing it.
    Seeing is belief.
    ;F{ 5|YD BFPHPhave+ lS|IF5N
    Having + lS|P5NG]\ E]TS'NgT
    Having finished it, I went to school.
    v5|YD lS|IF5N 5KL4 ALH] lS|IF5N
    v BFPHP 5C[,Fhappy,ready, eager, enough, too
    -it is/ was
    to + D]PlS|P
    to+be+ lS|5NG]\ E]TS'NgT
    - I am happy to see it.
    - I wanted to do it.

1 comment:

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